Humans have always looked at the heavens and wondered about the nature of the objects
seen in the night sky.
The Space Race was a battle between the United States and the Soviet Union. The purpose of this was to see which country of the two are the best country with technology, knowledge, and has the most power of all. This event changed all attempts of space exploration to being able to reach
the moon and mars.
The investigation, by means of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, trying to reach the
universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere and the use of the information gained to increase knowledge of the cosmos and the benefit of humanity.
The space race was then followed by an era of space cooperation, highlighted by the International Space Station. In the latter half of the 20th century, rockets were developed to be powerful enough to control the force of gravity to reach orbital velocities, paving the way for space exploration to become a reality.
In the 1930 s to 1940 s, Germany saw the possibilities of using longdistance rockets as weapons. Late in World War II, London was attacked by 200-mile-range V-2 missiles, which arched 60 miles high over the
English Channel at more than 3,500 miles per hour.
The first U.S. Satellite, Explorer 1, went into orbit on Jan. 31, 1958. In 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American to fly into space. On Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn’s historic flight made him the first American to orbit Earth.
Landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth within a decade” was a national goal set by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. On July 20, 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong took “one giant leap for mankind” as he stepped onto the moon. There are two kinds of space flights crewed and uncrewed, the first to reach outer space is the uncrewed followed by the crew. The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet uncrewed Sputnik 1 (“Satellite1”) mission on 4 October 1957. The satellite weighed about 83 kg (183 lb), and is believed to have orbited Earth at a height of about 250 km (160 mid).
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space when he orbited the Earth in a Vostok spacecraft on April 12, 1961. About a month later Alan Shepard, Jr. became the first American in space on May 5, 1961, when he was launched aboard Mercury-Redstone 3. The ISS or the International Space Station is a modular space station in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space stations are established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements.
The Big Six [space agencies] are, in alphabetical order: CNSA, the Chinese National Space Agency. ESA, the European Space Agency, a consortium of national space agencies of several European countries. ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organization. JAXA, the Japanese space agency. NASA, the American space agency. BEYOND NASA In space it’s a matter of insulation. Just as your blanket keeps your body
heat in so you stay warm in bed, NASA space suits have insulation systems as well as heaters. … When a person’s body temperature rises, the material absorbs the heat. When it drops, the material gives off the heat, providing warmth. “
HOW CAN ASTRONAUTS SURVIVE IN ALMOST AN ABSOLUTE ZERO…
Most of the satellites are outside Earth’s atmosphere but many weather satellites orbit Earth in the exosphere. One definition of the outermost limit of the exosphere places the uppermost
edge of Earth’s atmosphere around 190,000 km (120,000 miles), about halfway to the Moon. At this distance, radiation pressure from sunlight exerts more force on hydrogen atoms than does the pull of Earth’s gravity.
ARE SATELLITES OUTSIDE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
In order to unlock the mysteries of the Sun’s atmosphere, Parker Solar probe uses Venus ’gravity during seven flybys over nearly seven years to gradually bring its orbit closer to the Sun. The spacecraft will fly through the Sun’s atmosphere as close as 3.8 million miles to our star’s surface, well within the orbit of Mercury and more than seven times closer than any spacecraft has come before. (Earth’s average distance to the Sun is 93 million miles.) Flying into the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere, known as the corona, for the first time, Parker Solar Probe employs a combination of in situ measurements and imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona
and expand our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the solar wind. It also makes critical contributions to our ability to forecast changes in Earth’s space environment that affect life and technology on Earth.
THE SCIENCE OF THE SUN
The primary science goals for the mission are to trace how energy and heat move through the solar corona and to explore what accelerates the solar wind as well as solar energetic particles. Scientists have sought these answers for more than 60 years, but the investigation requires sending a probe right through the 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit heat of the corona. Today, this is finally possible with cutting-edge thermal engineering advances that protect the mission on its dangerous journey. Parker Solar Probe carries four instrument suites designed to study magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles, and image the solar wind.
TEAMING FOR SUCCESS
Parker Solar Probe is part of NASA’s Living With a Star program to explore aspects of the Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. The Living With a Star flight program is managed by the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate
in Washington. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, manages the mission for NASA. APL is designed, built, and operates the spacecraft.
Continuation >> Read the following interesting topics >> FURTHER THAN THE MOON >> FIRST ARAB IN SPACE >> THE 5 DEADLIEST DISASTERS OF THE SPACE RACE
Writer: Soufiane Y. Issa